Surface |dB/dt| Models

| .eps file of image | Data used to drive models | Large Plot |

Data Description:

Vsw and B_z: 
Vsw is the 30-minute average magnitude of the solar-wind velocity in GSM coordintates. B_z is the 30-minute average of the north-south component of the solar-wind magnetic field in GSM coordinates. The V_sw data were averaged from 64-second data, while B_z was averaged from four-minute data. The (Level 2) data were obtained from the Caltech ACE page.
Related Links and Publications
Description of Models:

dB/dt_02:  This was described in Weigel et al., 2002; the model predicts the 30-minute averaged |dB/dt| at spatial locations between 57 and 76 degrees GCM latitude at all local times. The inputs to the model are the 30-minute averaged values of Bz (IMF) and Vx from the L1 point.
Related Links and Publications

Solar-wind velocity measurements

ACE Satellite Page
ACE SWEPAM Instrument page
Real time ACE data at NOAA

B and dB/dt Measurements

IMAGE magnetometer array
- Viljanen, A., The relation between geomagnetic variations and their time derivatives and implications for estimation of induction risks, GRL, Vol. 24, 631, 1997.


- Weigel, R.S., D. Vassiliadis, and A.J. Klimas, Coupling of the solar wind to temporal fluctuations in ground magnetic fields, GRL, Vol. 29, 19, 1915, doi:10.1029/2002GL014740, 2002.
- Weigel, R.S., A.J. Klimas, and D. Vassiliadis, Solar Wind Coupling to and Predictability of Ground Magnetic Fields and Their Time Derivatives, 2003.