Paleo Connections Between the
Sun, Climate, and Culture

September 14-16, 2005

Durango, Colorado ☼ Doubletree Hotel

Thank you to all who attended the 3rd annual SORCE Science Meeting, motivated by the NASA/EOS Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE). The meeting was a huge success. We received many positive comments about the high quality and informative content of the talks. Below you will find links to most of the presentations and posters in .pdf format. You will need the newest version of Adobe Acrobat Reader to view these files. (To download the newest version go here). Some of the files are very large (the size is noted next to the link), so, please be patient when downloading. Thanks again from the SORCE science team!


Solar activity, the Earth’s climate and human culture, all undergo change. An increasing number of paleoclimate records, for example in ice-cores, ocean sediments, lake levels, and tree-rings, suggest a solar contribution to past climate change because many records correlate strongly with the 10Be and 14C cosmogenic isotopes. The cosmogenic isotopes are considered to be proxies of solar activity, because solar modulation of the heliosphere alters the flux of incoming galactic cosmic rays which produce the isotopes. Furthermore, comparisons of paleoclimate records with archeological evidence of past human cultures suggests that solar-driven climate change may have contributed to the prosperity and demise of various civilizations, for example in the Yucatan and East Africa.

The 3rd Annual SORCE Science Meeting will concentrate on both the empirical evidence and physical processes that link the sun, climate, and culture in the distant past. This includes understanding the relationship between solar irradiance and cosmogenic isotopes, which are typically assumed to reflect changes in solar brightness since this energy modulation is a million times larger than that of cosmic rays themselves. The lack of global climate records makes it difficult to discern the spatial pattern of the apparent climate response to past solar variability, which can provide clues about possible mechanisms. Nevertheless, from assorted paleo evidence at equatorial, mid- and high-latitudes, sometimes in combination with more recent datasets, a number of processes have been suggested. These include changes in the location of the intertropical convergence zone and in various dynamical modes including the North Atlantic Oscillation, the El Niño Southern Oscillation, and in the Hadley and Walker Circulations. Civilizations most susceptible to solar-driven climate change appear to be those located in regions where rainfall and drought are especially vulnerable to changes in these climate variability modes and circulation patterns. This emphasizes the need to understand the role of the hydrological cycle in the sun, climate, culture connection, which will be discussed in the following sessions.

Session 1 SORCE observations of solar radiation - new science results.
Session 2 Reconstructions of past solar irradiance and modeled climate reponses.
Session 3 Evidence for climate responses to solar variability.
Session 4 Interpreting the solar and climate sources of cosmogenic isotope variations, and their relationship to solar irradiance
Session 5 Physical processes linking climate, cultural responses, and solar variability

MEETING AGENDA -- Final (with presentations)

** Click on presenters' name for the abstract in html format. **
** C
lick on the presentation title to download the presentation in .pdf format. **

Tue, September 13

Special Session for Gary Rottman

Speakers Included:

Wed, September 14

Keynote Lecture:
Judith Lean
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, DC


Secular Change in the Sun-Earth System (12.1 MB)

Session 1:        SORCE Observations of Solar Radiation – New Science Results
Chair:  Rodney Viereck, NOAA, Space Environment Center, Boulder, Colorado


Gary Rottman (Invited)
LASP, University of Co,

Overview of the SORCE Mission (1.3 MB)

Greg Kopp (Invited)
LASP, University of Co,

Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM): New Results for TSI (6.2 MB)

Jerry Harder (Invited)
LASP, University of Co,

Solar Spectral Irradiance Variability Comparisons of the SORCE SIM Instrument with Monitors of Solar Activity and Spectral Synthesis (2.1 MB)

Bill McClintock (Invited)
LASP, University of Co,

Solar Variability in the Ultraviolet - SORCE SOLSTICE Observations (5.6 MB)

Tom Woods (Invited)
LASP, University of Co,

Flare Variability of the Solar XUV Irradiance from the SORCE XPS (720 KB)

Rodney Viereck (Invited)
NOAA, Space Environment Center
Boulder, Colorado

NOAA Observations of Solar Irradiance (8.9 MB)

Joseph Rice (Invited)
NIST Optical Technology Division
Gaithersburg, MD

TSI Uncertainty Workshop (612 KB)

Session 2Reconstructions of Past Solar Irradiance and Modeled Climate Responses
Chair:  Jeffrey Hall, Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona

Natalie Krivova (Invited)
Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung,

Irradiance Reconstructions – Evolution of Sources (2.6 MB)

Sami Solanki (Invited)
Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie

Past Levels of Solar Activity and Irradiance

Caspar Ammann (Invited)
National Center for Atmospheric Research
Boulder, Colorado

Isolating a Solar Fingerprint in Climate of the Last Millennium (2.8 MB)

Drew Shindell, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York

Present Day and Historical Response to Solar Forcing in the Fully Coupled Chemistry-Climate GISS ModelE (2.2 MB)

Kunihiko Kodera (Invited)
Meteorological Research Institute
Tsukuba, Japan

Solar Influence on Troposphere through Stratospheric Dynamical Processes

Katja Matthes (Invited)
Freie Universität Berlin and NCAR

Solar Induced Stratospheric Effects (3.3 MB)

  Introduction to Posters
  1. Solar Variability
Dick White, LASP, University of Co, Boulder
  1. Sun-Climate
Peter Pilewskie, LASP, University of Co, Boulder

Thur, September 15


Keynote Lecture: 
Peter deMenocal
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University
New York

Late Holocene Variability of Atlantic Surface and Deep Ocean Circulation: Amplitudes and Cultural Impacts
(2.2 MB)

Session 3: Evidence for Climate Responses to Solar Variability
Chair:  Ray Bradley, University of Massachusetts, Amhers


Harry van Loon (Invited)
NW Research Associates
Boulder, Colorado

A Probable Influence in the Pacific Ocean of the Decadal Solar Oscillation

Curt Stager (Invited), Paul Smith’s College, New York

Solar Effects on Rainfall at Lake Victoria, East Africa (4.3 MB)

Subarna Bhattacharyya, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, India

Evidence for Strong Links between Indian Rainfall and Solar Activity (1.6 MB)

Ashish Sinha, California State University, Dominguez Hills

Possible Solar Forcing of Late Holocene Mega-Droughts in India (1.2 MB)

Paul Mayewski (Invited), University of Maine, Orono

Ice Core Evidence for Solar Forcing of the Polar Atmosphere (2.1 MB)

Charles Perry, U. S. Geological Survey, Lawrence, Kansas

Solar Activity, Ocean/Atmospheric Processes, and Mississippi River Flow (2.9 MB)

Alexander Ruzmaikin, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

Signals from the Nile River (1 MB)

David Lund, MIT/ Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program in Oceanography

Gulf Stream Salinity Variability during the Last Millennium (1.7 MB)

Session 4:  Interpreting the Solar and Climate Sources of Cosmogenic
Isotope Variations, and their Relationship to Solar Irradiance

Chair: Raimund Muscheler, NCAR, Boulder, Colorado

Monika Korte (Invited), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany

Long-Term Changes in the Geomagnetic Field (920 kb)
Attached movie: Vertical Field Component at the Earth's Surface (slide #19) (30.3 MB)

Cathy Constable, IGPP, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego

Prospects for Resolving Short-term Variations in the Paleomagnetic Dipole Moment (12.4 MB)

Horst Fichtner (Invited), Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany

Cosmic Ray Modulation and its Significance for Extraterrestrial Climate Driving (2.1 MB)
Attached movie:Cosmic Ray Modulation in the Heliosphere - Hybrid Modelling (slide #22) (7.1 MB)

Raimund Muscheler (Invited), National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

Solar Sources of Cosmogenic Isotope Variations (4.5 MB)

Christy Field (Invited), NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York

Climate and Production-Related Impacts on Beryllium-10 (1.8 MB)

SORCE Meeting Science Dinner


Modeling of Historical Ecology – Seven Centuries of Pueblo Indian Settlement in the Mesa Verde Region

Fri, September 16

Keynote Lecture: 
Scott Lehman, University of Co, Boulder

Response of Norwegian Sea Surface and Air Temperature to Solar Forcing; A Tribute to the “Persistence” of Gerard Bond
(Talk in Honor of Gerard Bond)
(2.1 MB)

Session 5: Linkages of Climate Cultural Responses and Solar Variability
Chair:  Ray Bradley, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Ray Bradley (Invited), University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Has Solar Forcing Been an Important Influence on Climate in the Late Holocene? (9.9 MB)

Bas van Geel (Invited), University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

The Sun, Climate Change and the Expansion of the Scythians after 850 BC (7.3 MB)

Sultan Hameed, Stony Brook University, New York

Prolonged Drought in Northern China During the Maunder Minimum and Its Relation to Peasant Rebellions and Fall of the Ming Dynasty (2.5 MB)

Connie Woodhouse (Invited), National Climate Data Center, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado

Impacts of Drought: Water Resources in the Colorado River Basin (1.7 MB)

Joan Feynman, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

Solar Forcing, Climate Change and the Invention of Agriculture (268 KB)


Downloadable Agenda (.pdf)
Downloadable Presentation Abstracts (.pdf)

POSTER SESSIONS (Wed. Sept 14, 4:00-6:00 p.m.):

Downloadable Poster Abstracts File (.pdf)

Session 1: Solar Variability

Aden & Marjorie Meinel
University of Arizona, Tucson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California and Santa Barbara, California
Connecting Inferred Solar Microvariability over the Past 200ky with Observed Microvariability of 582 Solar-Class Stars from the ESA Hipparcos Program
Eun-Hee Lee
Yonsei University Observatory, Seoul, Korea
On the Duration of the Spöerer Minimum
Phil Judge
HAO, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
What was the Probable State of the Solar Chromosphereand Corona during the Maunder Minimum?

Jeffrey Hall
Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona

Cyclic and Secular Activity Changes in Solar Analog Stars

Peter Fox
HAO/ESSL/National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

Variability and Redundancy across the Solar Spectrum

Juan Fontenla
LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder

Spectral Irradiance Modeling and Long-Term Trends

David Dunham
Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland

Rock Bush
Stanford University, California

Observing the Solar Photosphere from Space using the MDI and HMI Instruments

Guoyong Wen
Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis of Observed and Modeled Solar Spectral Irradiances

Larry Puga
NOAA, Space Environment Center, Boulder, Colorado

The NOAA MgII Core-to-Wing Ratio

Marty Snow
LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder

SORCE SOLSTICE High-Time Cadence Magnesium II Observations

Marty Snow
LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder

Absolute Calibration of SORCE SOLSTICE

Chris Pankratz
LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder

SORCE Data Processing and Data Products

Session 2:  Sun-Climate


Dan Yeloff
University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

The Fossil Record of UV-B in Juncus Seeds and the Relation with Climate Change

E. J. Zita
Evergreen State College, Olympia, Washington

A Model for Investigating Sun-Climate Questions

Bai Ming
Tianjin University, China

Climate Change and the Expansion of the Northeast China Culture after 960 BC

David Gregory & Fred Nials
Center for Desert Archaeology, Pinetop, Arizona

Solar Variability, Climate, and Human Response: A view from the Southwest

Ming Chen
IMSG at NOAA/NESDIS, Camp Springs, Maryland

A Climatological Spectral Study for Diagnosing the Solar 11-Year Signal in the Northern Hemisphere Atmosphere

Saumitra Mukherjee
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

Cosmic Influence on Environment of the Earth

Aden & Marjorie Meinel
University of Arizona, Tucson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California and Santa Barbara, California

Connecting the Inverse Correlation between 10Be and GRIP Temperature and Snowfall Accumulation over the Past 200 Ky with Relevance to the Variation of 10Be during the past 80 Ky and to the 40-Ky BP Surge

Marty Snow
LASP, University of Colorado

LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter (LISIRD)


Downloadable Presenter Information (.pdf)

The SORCE Meeting will be at the Durango Doubletree in the Doubletree Ballroom. Check-in for the meeting will begin at the Welcoming Reception beginning at 5:30 p.m. on Tuesday, September 13. The meeting will begin at 8:30 a.m. on Wednesday, September 14. The meeting will conclude at approximately 12:00 noon on Friday, September 16.

Presenter Information

ORAL -- Presentation equipment includes an overhead projector, a computer projector, and portable computers (Mac and PC). The computers will have the latest versions of PowerPoint. There is a USB Port, Zip drive, and CD drive available. There will also be a laser pointer available for your use.

The length of your talk (including discussion) is on the agenda. To save time during the meeting, it would be great if you could supply Vanessa George with an electronic version of your presentation in advance of the meeting (by Sept. 9). This would be extremely helpful in avoiding fumbling around with computers during a session. Of course, be sure to bring your own copy to the meeting as well.

An important goal of the SORCE meetings is to foster interdisciplinary exchanges amongst scientists with quite different backgrounds. For this reason we very much encourage speakers to begin their talk with at least a few basic, introductory "tutorial" slides that provide general scientific background and context for the audience. We found that this approach was very well received at the last meeting.

POSTER -- Posters can be set up beginning Tuesday evening at 5:30 p.m. in the Doubletree Ballroom. They will be on display Wednesday and Thursday, September 14-15, with a special Poster Sessions on Wednesday afternoon. Posters will be attached to the meeting room walls in an assigned space. Posters will each be given up to a 6 feet wide x 4 feet tall area (1.8 m x 1.2 m). Materials will be attached to the meeting room walls with special tape, which will be provided. Push pins are not allowed.


A synopsis of the 2005 SORCE science meeting will be published on-line in EOS’s The Earth Observer. For a detailed summary of past SORCE meetings (2003 and 2004), please read the final articles which can be found on-line at the SORCE meeting website. We anticipate that the Durango meeting will be just as exciting, with attendees enthusiastically sharing information, ideas, and opinions


Special Session for Gary Rottman

Tuesday, Sept. 13, 1:30 p.m.

In recognition of Gary Rottman’s upcoming retirement, a special session is planned in his honor just prior to the SORCE Meeting. Colleagues and former graduate students will be gathering to share science and personal experiences in working with Gary. Speakers include Bob Cahalan, Lika Guhathakurta, Don Hassler, Jim Klimchuk, George Mount, and Skip Reber. There will also be an “open mic” time for anyone else wishing to participate.

The afternoon will end with a reception, which will also be the kick-off for the 3rd Annual SORCE Meeting. Everyone is invited to attend this special session and the reception!


Center of Southwest Studies
Thursday, Sept. 15, 5:00 p.m.

Located at Durango’s Fort Lewis College, we will enjoy a museum/gallery tour and reception. The current exhibit is called “Circle of the Spirit – Navajo and Tibetan Wisdom for Living”. Transportation will be provided. In solar style, when the sun sets we will head to the Strater Hotel for dinner.


SORCE Science Meeting Dinner
Thursday, September 15, 7:30 p.m.

There will be a Science Meeting Dinner Thursday for all attendees at the historic Strater Hotel, one of Colorado’s finest turn-of-the-century Victorian hotels. Built in 1887, this beautiful downtown Durango landmark has only gotten better through the years, even becoming a national finalist for Lodging Magazine's prestigious Gold Key Award. Their chef promises a fabulous buffet along with impeccable service.

Dr. Mark Vrain will discuss cultural impacts during the Anasazi period in southwest Colorado, where scientists have studied Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde. For more information on this special presentation, please click here.

Tickets: $42.  Reservations are required – Please sign up and pay for this event on the Registration Form.  Everyone is encouraged to attend, and friends and family are welcome.



Friday, September 16, 1:15 p.m.

Local resident and SORCE co-investigator, Dick White, will lead us through Mesa Verde National Park. This is an opportunity to see and experience a unique culture and beautiful landscape.  People living in the area 1200 years ago built elaborate stone villages in the sheltered alcoves of the canyon walls called “cliff dwellings”.  Mesa Verde National Park is the largest archaeological preserve in the U.S.  For more information, visit the Park’s website at:

People will be on their own for all expenses and car-pooling. The entrance to the Park is 35 miles west of Durango, and it takes about 45 minutes to get to the archeological sites from the entrance.  Dick and a park ranger will escort you through Mesa Verde for the afternoon.  If there is enough interest, dinner reservations will be made at the Metate Room in the Far View Lodge, which is located in the Park.  Join us for this truly special event!

If you have any problems or questions please contact: