2006 Science
Meeting Summary


Previous meeting summaries:

2005 Meeting Summary
Durango, Colorado

2004 Meeting Summary
Meredith, New Hampshire

2003 Meeting Summary
Sonoma, California

2002 Meeting Summary
Steamboat Springs, Colorado

Earth’s Radiative Energy Budget Related to SORCE
Science Meeting Summary

September 20-22, 2006
San Juan Islands, Washington  *  Rosario Resort, Orcas Island

Thank you for attending the very successful 2006 SORCE Science Meeting, motivated by the NASA/EOS Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE). The agenda consisted of invited and contributed oral and poster presentations. Below you will find .pdf versions of many of the presentations and posters that were given at the meeting.

Download meeting summary.


Solar radiation is the primary energy source for many processes in Earth’s environment and is responsible for driving the atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Since its launch in 2003, the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) has measured solar irradiance at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere with unprecedented accuracy, precision, and spectral coverage across the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. The magnitude and spectral distribution of solar radiation is modified from the SORCE-measured values via scattering and absorption within the atmosphere and at the surface.  Identifying and understanding those processes which perturb the distribution of solar and terrestrial radiative energy is essential in determining the climate response to changes in concentrations of various gases and aerosol particles from natural and anthropogenic sources, as is discerning their associated feedback mechanisms.

The theme of the 2006 SORCE Science Team Meeting was The Earth’s Radiative Energy Budget Related to SORCE.  Several of the key questions and issues addressed included:

  • What is the present state of knowledge of the Earth’s radiation budget from space, from within that atmosphere, and at the surface?
  • What are the key processes that control Earth’s albedo?
  • What are the key radiative forcing agents, of natural and anthropogenic origin, and how have their relative influences changed over the past three centuries?
  • What are the important feedback mechanisms for regulating Earth’s climate?
  • What is the sensitivity of climate to induced radiative forcing and over what time scales does climate respond?
  • What is the role of the biosphere?

View from Orcas Island looking at Mt. Baker on Washington state’s mainland.  The elevation of Mount Baker is 10778 feet (3285 meters).

Sessions included:
  1. SORCE Contributions to Earth’s Radiative Energy Budget
  2. Radiative Energy Budget
  3. Radiative Forcings
  4. Climate Responses and Feedbacks

Below you will find links to .pdf versions of presentations given at the meeting. (Click on the scientists name for an abstract summary and click on the presentation title to download the presentation)

Download meeting summary.

Tuesday, September 19
5:30 p.m. Welcome Reception 4th Annual SORCE Meeting, Poster Setup

Wednesday, September 20,

Welcome: Tom Woods, LASP, University of Colorado
Session 1 - SORCE Contributions to Earth’s Radiative Energy Budget
Tom Woods
LASP, CU Boulder
Overview of the SORCE Mission and its Future (16.8Mb)
Greg Kopp
LASP, CU Boulder
TSI: The Incoming Side of the Equation (18.6Mb)
Jerry Harder
LASP, CU Boulder
The Role of VIS-IR / SIM in Climate Science (6.6Mb)
Bill McClintock
LASP, CU Boulder
Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance and Its Varability (5Mb)
Marty Snow
LASP, CU Boulder
The Role of Spectral Resolution in Measuring the Solar Magnesium II Index (1.3Mb)
Session 2 - Radiative Energy Budget
Norm Loeb
NASA Langley Research Center,
Hampton, VA
Determination of the Earth's Radiation Budget from CERES (7.6Mb)
Peter Pilewskie
LASP, CU Boulder
Overview of the Radiation Budget in the Lower Atmosphere (7.7Mb)

Wednesday, September 20,

Ellsworth Dutton
NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory,
Boulder, CO
Surface Radiation Budget Observations: Progress and Challenges (3.3Mb)
Tom Ackerman
Pacific Northwest National Lab, Washington; University of Washington
The Radiation Budget of an Atmospheric Column in the Tropical Western Pacific (5Mb)

Roger Davies
University of Auckland, New Zealand

Constraints on the Interannual Variation of Global and Regional TOA Radiation Budgets Inferred from MISR Measurements (476Kb)
Steven Dewitte
Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, Brussels
Time-Space Complete Measurement of the Earth Radiation Budget (684Kb)
Tony Slingo
University of Reading, United Kingdom
Observations of the Earth’s Radiation Budget from Geostationary Orbit and from the Surface (17.9Mb)
Poster Session / Reception  

Thursday, September 21

Session 3 -Radiative Forcings - Dedicated to Yoram Kaufman
Robert Cahalan
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD
Tribute to Yoram Kaufman (276Kb)
Judith Lean
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, DC
Solar Radiative Forcing (32.1Mb)
Roger Pielke Sr.
University of Colorado, Boulder
Regional and Global Climate Forcings – The Need to Move Beyond a Focus of the Radiative Forcing of the Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases (3.3Mb)
Mark Weber
University of Bremen, Germany
Solar Variability and its Links to Ozone-Climate Interaction (10.1Mb)
Bill Collins
National Center for Atmospheric Research
Boulder, CO
Radiative Forcing by Greenhouse Gases and its Representation in Global Models (4Mb)
Brian Cairns
Columbia University, New York, NY
Using Models and Measurements to Understand and Constrain the Direct Effect of Aerosols on Climate (34.3Mb)
Jim Coakley
Oregon State University, Corvallis
The Aerosol Indirect Effect (3.4Mb)
Antony Clarke
University of Hawaii, Honolulu
An Ultra-fine Sea-Salt Flux from Breaking Waves: Implications for CCN in the Remote Marine Atmosphere (6.7Mb)
Steven Lloyd
APL, Johns Hopkins University
Laurel, MD
A 27-Year Composite Dataset of Global UV Effective Reflectivity from the TOMS and SBUV(/2) Satellite Instruments (5.5Mb)

Thursday, September 21

Session 4 -Climate Responses and Feedbacks
KK Tung
University of Washington, Seattle
Climate Sensitivity from Atmosphere’s Response to the Radiative Forcing of the 11-Year Solar Cycle, including Feedbacks
David Halpern
NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC
Ocean-Atmosphere Interfaces in Climate (2.3Mb)
Optional activity Ferry to Friday Harbor, San Juan Island
  SORCE Science Dinner, San Juan Island Yacht Club
Guest Speaker:  Gary Rottman

Friday, September 22

Session 4 Continues -Climate Responses and Feedbacks
Robert Cahalan
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD
Three-Dimensional Cloud Properties and Climate (27.4Mb)
Ken Jezek
The Ohio State University, Columbus

Recent Changes in Polar Ice Sheets and Sea Ice (40.6Mb)

Steve Rumbold
University of Reading, United Kingdom
Effect of the 11-Year Solar Cycle on Stratospheric Temperatures (4.1Mb)
Jose Rial and Ming Yang
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Solar Forcing and Abrupt Climate Change over the Last 100,000 Years (20.7Mb)
Dominique Crommelynck
Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, Brussels
The Observation of the Earth Radiation Budget: A Set of Challenges (380Kb)
E. J. Zita
The Evergreen St. College, Olympia, WA
Earth’s Energy Balance:  Climate Change Workshops (16.6Mb)
Meeting Summary: Tom Woods, LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder (2.5Mb)

Friday, September 22

  Optional Tour – Whale/Wildlife Excursion

Below you will find .pdf versions of posters that were presented at the meeting. (Click on the presenter's name to see an abstract and click on the presentation title to download the presentation.)

Subarna Bhattacharyya, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, India
A Wavelet Cross-Spectral Analysis of Solar/ENSO Connections with Indian Monsoon Rainfall

Antony Clarke, University of Hawaii, Honolulu
Biomass Burning and Pollution Aerosol over North America: Organic Components and Their Influence on Spectral Optical Properties and Humidification Response

Matt DeLand, Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, MD
Maintaining the Solar UV Database in the 21st Century

Frank Eparvier, LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder
How TIMED-SEE uses FUV data for validation and calibration

Juan Fontenla, LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder
The Solar Radiation Physical Modeling System

Claus Fröhlich, Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center, Switzerland
Comparison of the WRC-85 Solar Spectral Irradiance with RSSV1 and the SPM of VIRGO/SOHO

Barry Knapp, LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder
SORCE Solar Irradiance Data Products

Greg Kopp, LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder
Could You See an Earth-Type Planetary Transit of a Solar-Type Star?  Another Use of TIM Data

Robert Kurucz, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA
High Resolution Irradiance Spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm

Jeff Morrill, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC
A Model of Long-Term Variability of Solar UV and EUV Irradiance

Julia Saba, Lockheed Martin, ATC Solar & Astrophysics Lab, Greenbelt, MD
Rapid Solar Cycle Onset – Potential New Climate Study Tool?

Marty Snow, LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder
The LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Database (LISIRD)

Marty Snow, LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder
UARS and SORCE SOLSTICEs:  Calibrations and Comparisons

Mark Weber, University of Bremen, Germany
Solar UV/Vis/NIR Spectral Irradiance from SCIAMACHY and GOME

Guoyong Wen, NASA GEST and NASA GSFC, Baltimore, MD
Deriving Historical TSI Variations from Lunar Borehole Profiles


For detailed summaries of past SORCE meetings (2002 - 2005), please read the final published articles which are linked to this website in the blue menu bar on the left . We anticipate that the San Juan Islands meeting will be just as exciting!

Welcoming Reception

Tuesday, Sept. 19, 5:30 p.m.
Blakely Room (ballroom entrance)

Join us for a special reception to kick-off for the 4th annual SORCE Science Meeting!  Beverage tickets (wine, beer, soda) will be provided.

Poster Session Reception
Wednesday, Sept. 20, 4:45 – 6:30 p.m.

Following a brief overview of the 2006 posters, everyone is invited to wander through the poster area. To recognize a few local culinary specialties, we will sample appetizers with an Asian flare. Beverage tickets (wine, beer, soda) will be provided in your registration packet.

Cruise to Friday Harbor
San Juan Island

Thursday, Sept. 21
3:45 p.m. departure (sharp!)

Please join us for a late afternoon cruise over to San Juan Island, 20 miles northwest of Orcas Island. After a 30-minute ferry ride, we will dock at Friday Harbor, San Juan Island’s bustling waterfront town. You will have several options before meeting the group for the annual Science Dinner at the San Juan Yacht Club at 6:30 p.m. There are many activities within walking distance, but you might also enjoy a short taxi ride outside of the downtown area. Maps and ideas will be provided at the SORCE Meeting. Excellent walking distance options include:

  1. Luxel Corporation Tour — Luxel has pioneered the development of ultra-thin foils for use as bandpass filters in the EUV and soft X-ray spectrum. They are the preeminent supplier for customers supporting X-ray and EUV research programs. Company president, Forbes Powell, will be heading a tour of their manufacturing facility. This tour will be limited so sign-up is required on the SORCE Meeting Registration Form (no charge; first-come, first-serve). From the boat dock, there is an approximate 1 mile uphill walk to Luxel. Taxi service may be available.
  2. The Whale Museum – Here you will discover what makes the San Juan Islands so special. You will learn about the natural history of marine mammals, with a special focus on the orcas living in the area. There is a fascinating collection of exhibits, and models and artifacts, including real whale skeletons. The Museum is conveniently located right at the Friday Harbor dock. A special tour has been arranged, so please sign-up for this activity on the SORCE Meeting Registration Form. The museum entrance and tour fee is $6 adults / $3 children.
  3. Walking Tour of Friday Harbor – You will be on your own to explore Friday Harbor’s quaint downtown, where you will find art galleries, gift shops (wonderful local lavender products), antique stores, and marine supply stores. There is plenty of viewing space to sit and watch boats and seaplanes come and go. There are also many quaint cafes (Washington state and coffee are inseparable!), as well as pubs to try the locally brewed ale.

SORCE Science Meeting Dinner
Thursday, September 21, 6:30 p.m.

There will be a Science Meeting Dinner Thursday for all attendees at the San Juan Island Yacht Club. After a 40-minute ferry ride from Orcas Island (departing at 3:45 p.m. sharp), we will dock at Friday Harbor, San Juan Island’s main town. Founded in 1964, the Yacht Club boosts a very active membership with travelers from Canada’s Glacier Bay down to California. Located right on the waterfront, the sunset (7:12 p.m.) promises to be spectacular.

We will begin with light appetizers on the outdoor deck, with views of the beautiful harbor. For dinner we have selected a limited menu of several popular dishes. Please mark your selection on the Registration Form.

  • Prime Rib
  • Salmon
  • Pasta Primavera (Vegetarian)

Tickets: $48.  Reservations are required – Please sign up and pay for this event on the Registration Form. Everyone is encouraged to attend, and friends and family are welcome. Ticket price includes the ferry ride, light appetizers, salad, entrée, accompaniments, dessert, water/coffee, gratuity and tax. There will be wine and soda available. 

Special guest speaker, Gary Rottman – original SORCE PI
“Politically speaking…”


Rosario Resort and Spa
Orcas Island
60 rooms, $139/night
1-800-562-8820 or
M-F, 8 a.m. – 5 p.m. PT


Listed on the National Historic Register, Rosario Resort and Spa is a premier destination for San Juan Island visitors.

Inspired by its beautiful seaside location and intimate Pacific Northwest surroundings, this historic resort features sailing, sea kayaking, and whale watching, in addition to their lovely conference facilities. Rosario’s oldest structure and its centerpiece is the 1906 Moran Mansion, built and owned by shipping magnate, Robert Moran. With over 6,000 sq feet of teak floors, the mansion is adorned with unique pieces of Northwest history.

With pristine views of Cascade Bay, the Moran Mansion houses their conference facilities, restaurant, spa, boutique, lounge, music room, library, and museum. Overnight accommodations are spread across 8 acres of nearby evergreen-covered hillsides, a short 10-minute walk (½ mile) from the mansion. Although the SORCE room block does not include all of the different lodging options, you will want to go on-line to review them (guest rooms / accommodations) before calling to make your reservation.

Rosario Resort’s spa includes two pools, a fitness room, sauna, Jacuzzi, and a host of spa treatments (Avanyu Spa). For meals, Rosario’s features the freshest seafood and authentic local flavors in their four tantalizing on-property dining options (fine dining). Rosario Resort and Spa has been featured in Town & Country, Northwest Travel, Orange Coast, Small Market Meetings, and Sunset Magazine. For additional information visit their main website: http://rosarioresort.com. You might also want to visit their live webcam at http://rosario.rockresorts.com/info/htl.cam.asp.

Although Rosario Resort is a fantastic property, you might want to explore other Orcas Island options at: www.sanjuanislandsdirectory.com/orcas/olodging%20.htm.

Getting to Rosario Resort, Orcas Island –
Rosario Resort & Spa is located on Orcas Island, 80 miles northwest of Seattle, Washington and 95 miles southwest of Vancouver, British Columbia, in the San Juan Islands of Washington state. The resort is situated on Cascade Bay, near the village of Eastsound and is accessible by water taxi, car ferry, boat, airplane, or seaplane. Water taxi and ferry services depart from the Washington mainland area in and surrounding Anacortes and Bellingham, Washington. Rosario’s website offers excellent options and detailed directions (Getting Here).

Eastsound ferry docks on
Orcas Island.

We encourage you to make airline reservations early.

Driving.  From Seattle drive 1.5 hours North on I-5 to exit 230 (near Burlington) and take Highway 20 West toward Anacortes – follow the signs to Anacortes/Ferry Terminal. The ferry route is well marked. Try to arrive at the San Juan Ferry Terminal one hour before the scheduled departure. The ferry to Orcas Island takes about 1-1/4 hours and costs about $40 one-way. Washington State Ferry information and schedules are available at 206-464-6400 or at their websites: www.sanjuanislandsferryschedule.com, or www.wsdot.wa.gov/ferries/. Immediately after disembarking the ferry on Orcas Island, go left following the majority of traffic for 11 miles. The road then becomes Olga Road, on which you will travel for another 6 miles. Rosario Resort Road will be on your right, just before the entrance to Moran State Park. For more detailed driving directions, visit the MapQuest website -- www.mapquest.com/. Rosario Resort and Spa is located at 1400 Rosario Road, Eastsound, WA 98245.

Flying.  The air and seaplanes to Orcas Island depart from various airports near Seattle’s Sea-Tac International Airport (SEA). Popular commuter airlines flying into Orcas Island include San Juan Airlines and Kenmore Air.

  • Seaplane: Kenmore Air (800-543-9595) is today’s seaplane leader flying directly to the Rosario Resort Marina, where Rosario staff will welcome you. Kenmore Air offers a complimentary shuttle between Sea-Tac Airport and Lake Union in Seattle's downtown. This superbly scenic flight is 45 minutes. Your luggage weight is limited to 24 lbs., and the approximate cost is $200 round-trip.
  • Standard airplane:  Try Kenmore Air (800-543-9595) or San Juan Airlines (800-874-4434) for direct flights to Orcas Island from Seattle's Boeing Field. They have regularly scheduled daily flights for approximately $200 round-trip. Once you have landed at the Orcas Island Airport in East Sound, the Rosario shuttle will pick you up. Be sure to call ahead of time to request their shuttle service, providing them with your flight arrival information.

Maps (click to enlarge):


Whale Watching!
Friday, September 22, 1:30 - 5:00 p.m.

07orcasThrough an experienced local tour company, we have arranged a special narrated trip to see and learn about Orcas (Killer Whales), Minke Whales, and other marine wildlife of the San Juan Islands. Traditionally whale sightings occur about 90% of the time on any tour between May and September, and the time of day doesn’t matter.  Besides experiencing the thrill of seeing one of these majestic creatures, we could also see bald eagles, seals, porpoises, and rare seabirds as we cruise the unspoiled pristine islands.

08orcasCost:  $55 adults, $35 children (under 14). Please register and pay for this tour on the Registration Form. The boat will depart from and return to Rosario Resort’s marina. Although there is outdoor and indoor (heated) seating, please where appropriate warm-weather clothing (layers are always good). For more information, visit the tour company website at: http://www.deerharborcharters.com/. Join us for this truly special event!  There is a passenger limit, so please register early. This tour is not recommended for children under 4 years old.


A magnificent play ground, rich in beauty and nature. If you’ve never been to this part of Washington state, don’t miss this opportunity! The San Juan Islands are in the midst of spectacular and diverse natural beauty. Sheltered coves, lush forests, sunny meadows, and a marine paradise have welcomed visitors for hundreds of years. With over 172 named islands in the San Juan archipelago, there is something for everyone. 

The horseshoe shape of Orcas Island means you are never far from a beautiful vista of the sea. As the biggest island in the county, the drives on Orcas are a little longer, and the pace a little slower (40 mph max). Bicycling, hiking, boating, kayaking, and art gallery shopping in the small villages are just a few favorite pastimes. There are also plenty of wildlife / whale watching tours, and Moran State Park boasts 30 miles of trails. 

For more information on the Orcas Island and the other San Juan Islands, please visit http://www.orcasisland.org and http://www.guidetosanjuans.com/.


September on Orcas Island can be anything – from brilliantly clear to thick fog. Both extremes can be beautiful! The trick is to “layer”, because you can never really predict the weather that might happen in one single day. The mean temperature in September is 57 degrees Fahrenheit, with an average low of 48 and an average high of 66. You definitely want a light waterproof jacket. The average rainfall in September is only 1.6 inches. The following website could be helpful before you pack -- http://www.weather.com/. Eastsound is the town closest to Rosario Resort on Orcas Island, and its zip code is 98245.


LASP is committed to making this Science Meeting accessible to all participants. If you require special arrangements, please contact Vanessa George.


Vanessa George: