The Fundamentals of Stellar Astrophysics, by George W. Collins (originally published by WH Freeman in 1989; revised online edition published 2003). Available in full online at ADS, but the PDF version occasionally contains garbled mathematics.
HERE is a link to some additional guidance about the written and oral parts of the final project, including a list of example topics.
- HERE is an ASCII data table giving some fundamental properties of stars and brown dwarfs along the zero-age main sequence. Sources for model data: (1) Ekstrom for M > 0.75 solar mass stars (ZAMS, non-rotating, Z=0.014). (2) Girardi for stars between 0.15 and 0.75 solar masses (ZAMS, Z=0.02). (3) Baraffe for M < 0.11 solar mass brown dwarf and planet models (quasi-ZAMS: age = 500 Myr).
- HERE is an ASCII data table giving various numerical constants relevant to polytropes and the Lane-Emden equations as a function of polytropic index n.
- A short "Summary of Error Propagation," archived both locally and at its original home at Harvard.
Other online books and lecture notes
Dr. Onno Pols from Utrecht wrote an excellent set of textbook-level notes on stellar interiors (i.e., stellar structure, thermodynamics, and nuclear fusion) and stellar evolution. Local copies of the notes are provided here, grouped into 5 PDF files (each containing more than one chapter):
2. Mechanical and Thermal Equilibrium
3. Equation of State of Stellar Interiors
4. Polytropic Stellar Models
5. Energy Transport in Stellar Interiors
6. Nuclear Processes in Stars
7. Stellar Models and Stellar Stability
8. Schematic Stellar Evolution: Consequences of the Virial Theorem
9. Early Stages of Evolution and the Main Sequence Phase
10. Post Main Sequence Evolution Through Helium Burning
11. Late Evolution of Low and Intermediate Mass Stars
12. Pre-Supernova Evolution of Massive Stars
13. Stellar Explosions and Remnants of Massive Stars
Other online books and lecture notes on stellar interiors include:
- CU's own Phil Armitage taught ASTR-5700 back in 2002, and still has his lecture notes online. He also posted a huge review of star formation and pre-main-sequence evolution to the arXiv in 2015.
- Henny Lamers and Emily Levesque have written a very nice textbook titled Understanding Stellar Evolution that is published by IOP/AAS.
- Michigan State's Ed Brown wrote up lecture notes on stellar physics and posted them as a github repo (on the growing Open Astrophysics Bookshelf) and as a PDF on his own web page.
Stellar oscillations: For more information than given in class, see a comprehensive (276-page) set of lecture notes by Jorgen Christensen-Dalsgaard. See also a two-part review of adiabatic and non-adiabatic pulsations, on arXiv.
Radiative transfer: Rob Rutten created an extensive set of lecture notes on radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres (with a bit of an emphasis on the Non-LTE upper layers most relevant to the solar chromosphere). HERE is a link to Rutten's external web page, which contains the full set of PDF notes (275 pages) and many other useful files.
Also, Dr. J. B. Tatum posted many of his lecture notes on stellar atmospheres and radiative transfer. I've archived his 11 chapters here:
1. Definitions of and Relations between Quantities used in Radiation Theory
2. Blackbody Radiation
3. The Exponential Integral Function
4. Flux, Specific Intensity and other Astrophysical Terms
5. Absorption, Scattering, Extinction and the Equation of Transfer
6. Limb Darkening
7. Atomic Spectroscopy
8. Boltzmann's and Saha's Equations
9. Oscillator Strengths and Related Topics
10. Line Profiles
11. Curve of Growth
The Sun: Koskinen and Vainio wrote up their lecture notes on solar physics ("from the core to the heliopause"). These notes go a bit further into the 'practical' applications of helioseismology and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) than other purely astronomical sources. HERE is a local copy of these notes in a single (188-page) PDF file.